Metabolism, active and resting/passive, is the set of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions in living organisms that sustains life. Passive/restingmetabolism is known as basal metabolic rate (BMR), which is the energy (calories) the average human body uses at rest to function daily. Active metabolism is the energy (calories) the human body uses for physical activity, be it cardio exercise, resistance/weightlifting training, or the like.
Serving three main purposes, metabolism:
- converts food to energy/fuel to run cellular processes
- converts that food/fuel into building blocks for proteins, lipids (fats), nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates
- eliminates metabolic wastes
Body type, genetics/DNA, diet, exercise, BMI, and lifestyle play key roles relative to a healthy metabolism which directly influences no less than aging and overall health. Metabolic reactions are typically categorized as catabolic (breaking down of compounds) or anabolic (building up of compounds). In general, catabolism releases energy while anabolism consumes energy.
How Muscle & Fat Affect and Influence Active & Passive/Resting Metabolism
The obesity epidemic remains a serious problem globally as healthcare systems struggle to truly understand and wrangle human health as a whole. With the dubious effectiveness of seemingly countless weight-loss diets and exercise programs and fads, discerning what does and does not actually work to lose, manage, and maintain weight is no easy task. Which one is really useful for my specific body type, if at all? How do I define my body type?
Mainstream science defines things in terms of any Standard Scientific Human Body Anatomy Book Body Type One (BT1) image, like this:
The standard Body Type One (BT1) is fully developed including vertebrae extension (posture) and muscle/muscle mass. How much muscle mass the specific individual human body has directly affects and influences metabolism, both active and passive/resting. The more properly developed muscle/muscle mass, the more calories the body burns at rest. A calorie is defined as the measure of energy in food consumed, specifically the measure of heat needed to raise a kilogram or a gram of water by one degree Celsius. As per mainstream science, when it comes to weight loss and looking identical to a standard BT1, the calorie is king.
According to recent research, it is claimed that ten (10) pounds of resting/passive (BMR) muscle burns fifty (50) calories per day, while ten (10) pounds of fat burns only twenty (20) calories. During the average day, brain function makes up roughly 20% of resting/passive (BMR) metabolism. The heart, which is beating all the time, accounts for another 15-20%. Next is the liver, which contributes another 15-20%. Then you have the kidneys and lungs and other tissues contributing 15-20%. Muscle, depending on how much your specific body has, contributes roughly 20-25% of total resting/passive metabolism. Finally, there is fat, the percentage of effect that fat weight has on resting/passive metabolism depends on how much fat is on your body.
Metabolism – Slow, Average/Normal, Fast
When you exercise, you use muscle. This helps build muscle mass, and muscle tissue burns more calories — even when you’re at rest — than body fat. If it is, indeed true, that 10 pounds of resting/passive muscle burns fifty (50) calories per day and ten (10) pounds of fat burns only twenty (20) calories, then it seems reasonable to conclude that how much fat is on the specific human body will negatively affect passive/resting metabolism and eventually, at some threshold, slow metabolism down. Whereas, the more muscle the body has, the more normal/average the metabolism will be. An average man has a rough BMR of around 7,100 kJ (1697 calories) per day, while an average woman has a rough BMR of around 5,900 kJ (1410 calories) per day. Energy expenditure is continuous, but the rate fluctuates throughout the day.
That then leads to the logical conclusion that the more muscle mass the body type has, the faster the metabolism. So, in theory, it is possible then to have a fast metabolism, if the body were to:
- have enough properly developed existing muscle on it, like with a Standard Scientific Human Body Anatomy Book Body Type One (BT1), and then
- further add muscle mass through, say, heavy weightlifting or the like, to significantly increase muscle mass above and beyond the normal/average Standard Scientific Human Body Anatomy Book Body Type One (BT1).
As it stands now, no processes or set of variables have been openly identified to be able to test this theory, as it would require knowing the exact amount of muscle/muscle mass on the specific human Body Type One (BT1) before heavy weightlifting began. On top of that, it would require being able to consistently track muscle mass added to the body over time. Although the technology likely exists to do this, it is easier said than done.
However, would that not also mean that a person who is extremely/morbidly obese, like 600 pounds or more, even 1,000 pound sisters, that the fatter they are, the more fat they have, and thus the more calories they burn? Then, logically, would that not mean at some point, with so much fat, they would be burning so many calories that they should start losing weight due to all the fat? But that is not the case.
No evidence exists currently that the fatter one gets, the more calories they burn, and thus at some point, they reach a metabolic threshold where they start losing weight because the fat starts to consume itself. Instead, all evidence at present strongly suggests that indeed a threshold is reached, but that threshold is the downward slide into more severe obesity and fat gain. So, how accurate is the whole “10 pounds of resting/passive muscle burns fifty (50) calories per day and ten (10) pounds of fat burns only twenty (20) calories” claim?
Measuring Metabolism and Metabolic Rate
The Mifflin-St Jeor Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) equation/formula is considered to be the most accurate mathematically scientific measure for metabolism to date, for both males and females.
- Female – ((9.99 x weight/kg)+(6.25 x height/cm)-(4.25 x age) – 166)x.15)-(9.99 x weight/kg)+(6.25 x height/cm)-(4.25 x age) – 166)
- Male – ((9.99 x weight/kg)+(6.25 x height/cm)-(4.25 x age) + 5)x.15)-(9.99 x weight/kg)+(6.25 x height/cm)-(4.25 * age) + 5)
Moreover, the Harris-Benedict Activity scale is scientifically respected as a reliable means to estimate activity level and calculated with the Mifflin-St Jeor Basal BMR produces a reliable overall metabolism/metabolic rate. Fellow One Research, using The Four (4) Body Type research data to date, has adjusted these equations to better evaluate things for individual research participants through the FORMR (Fellow One Research Metabolism Rate) Adjusted Mifflin-St Jeor BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) Score and FORMA (Fellow One Research Metabolism Activity) Adjusted Harris-Benedict Activity Score.
Tracking the Metabolism Math – Decreased, Steady, Increased Metabolic Rate
The FORMR equation/formula/algorithm determines the Mifflin-St Jeor BMR and Body Type Variables to equate the Adjusted Mifflin-St Jeor BMR and score the individual research participant with a slow, normal/average, or fast (not possible at this time) metabolism. The FORMA formula/equation/algorithm reckons the Adjusted Mifflin-St Jeor BMR and Adjusted Harris-Benedict Activity (using basic cardio and resistance exercise along with work activity data) to rate the individual research participant with a decreased, steady, or increased metabolic rate.
Learn More About the Fellow One Research, The Four Body Types Research Participants FORMR and FORMA Metabolism/Metabolic Rate Scores